Artificial Intelligence (AI): Considerations for Teaching and Learning
Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools have been in existence for quite some time; however, the launch of Open AI’s tool ChatGPT in late November 2022 garnered considerable attention.
Some institutions have gone so far to ban the use of such tools; however, most institutions are taking a softer approach and considering the potential for the ethical use of the tool as part of instruction. Conversations are focused around fostering a culture of academic integrity and encouraging instructors to be are clear with their expectations for permissible use of Generative AI tools in their respective courses.
What is Generative AI?
Generative AI (GAI) is a type of artificial intelligence that can produce various types of content, including text, images, audio and video. Most notably is the text output generator ChatGPT; however tools like DALL-E can produce images, and Movio produces video outputs from text prompts.
Lachief.io is a repository of AI tools that claims to be adding 10 new tools to its site daily, so more examples of GAI tools can be found there.
Instructors who are considering other forms of assessment beyond written work will also need to consider how AI could impact the integrity of these submissions too.
Based on OpenAi’s resource What is ChatGPT the generated responses (i.e. outputs) are pulled from content that existed on the internet prior to 2021. The tool itself is not directly connected to the internet; therefore, the outputs could be outdated or even incorrect. As point four in the resource states, other limitations include the fact that ChatGPT “may occasionally produce harmful instructions or biased content”.
The image below shows a simple example of an output from ChatGPT after being given a prompt. The general structure shows the prompt at the top, followed by the AI generated response.
For more information about ChatGPT watch this YouTube video (approximately 9 mins)
What types of outputs can be generated from ChatGPT?
Based on the work of Torrey Trust (Jan 2023) AI text generators have the capability to generate outputs in the form of:
- Lesson Plans
- Course outlines/Syllabi (even learning outcomes)
- Quiz questions
- Podcast Scripts
- Directions for learning activities
- Discussion content
It is important to note that this is an evolving technology and the list provided is not an exhaustive one.
One of main apprehensions for instructors about this tool revolves around the possible impact on academic integrity, given that many of the outputs prepared by such applications are undetectable in plagiarism detection tools.
Consider the following strategies to help counter the unethical use of ChatGPT or similar tools in your course:
- Update your academic integrity statement on your syllabus to explicitly include a reference to the use of any GAI in your course. You may choose to take a graduated approach, or advise your students that it is not permitted at all. CITL has drafted and curated some statements for you to consider.
- Talk to your students about academic integrity and the ethics of using GAI tools. Have an open conversation so your students are clear on your expectations. You can emphasize that you understand why some students may find tools like this helpful to their learning, and also highlight your concerns. Consider some of the points covered in the GAI Conversation Guide.
- Direct your students to the Library’s Academic Integrity resources, specifically the resource on AI and your academic work.
- Allow for sufficient time between assignments. Students may look for shortcuts like GAI when faced with time pressure from tight deadlines.
- Encourage your students to visit the Writing Centre. Peer tutors help students learn skills such as writing better thesis statements, brainstorming, organizing ideas, and writing more concisely. Being equipped with these skills enables a student to build self-confidence and not feel the need to rely on text generators.
GAI in the classroom
When thinking about classroom activities, discussions and your assessments, consider the opportunities, as well as the challenges presented by GAI tools like ChatGPT. Following are a few suggestions on how you can incorporate the use of the tool in your class activities.
Use it for discussion starters. If you are met with blank stares or silence after asking a question, use ChatGPT to provide a response. Engage your students in a critical dialogue around the response provided.
Provide students with a ChatGPT output and have them use the Track Changes (MS Word) or Suggesting (google docs) tools to critique or improve the response.
There are a number of AI tools that are specifically designed to support students in the writing process. Encouraging students to use these tools may help them better understand the process and discourage the use of tools/services in an unethical way. Some of the tools include:
- Writeful – Writeful’s AI helps you write, paraphrase, copyedit, and more
- ecree – a writing tutor
- TooWrite – a step-by-step guide to writing a paper, with prompts and questions
- CoAuthor – Human-AI Collaborative Writing Dataset
Edited by: Annette Vee, Tim Laquintano, and Carly Schnitzler; WAC Clearinghouse, Aug 2023
ABSTRACT: Generative AI is the most influential technology in writing in decades—nothing since the word processor has promised as much impact. Publicly-accessible Large Language Models (LLMs) such as ChatGPT have enabled students, teachers, and professional writers to generate writing indirectly, via prompts, and this writing can be calibrated for different audiences, contexts and genres. At the cusp of this moment defined by AI, TextGenEd collects early experiments in pedagogy with generative text technology, including but not limited to AI. The fully open access and peer-reviewed collection features 34 undergraduate-level assignments to support students’ AI literacy, rhetorical and ethical engagements, creative exploration, and professional writing text gen technology, along with an Introduction to guide instructors’ understanding and their selection of what to emphasize in their courses. TextGenEd enables teachers to integrate text generation technologies into their courses and respond to this crucial moment.
AI Content Detectors
If you suspect your students are using AI generated content for their submitted work, you can consider using applications like the AI content detectors listed below. Glenn Gabe of G-Squared Interactive (Nov, 2022) completed specific reviews of each tool in the list and offers some cautions and considerations around their use.
- Crossplag AI Content Detector
- Writer’s AI content detector tool.
- Huggingface GPT-2 Output Detector Demo.
- Giant Language Model Test Room (GLTR).
- Originality.ai (AI content and plagiarism detection)
- Content at Scale’s AI content detection tool.
IMPORTANT: While some tools may be more accurate than others in their assessment, the results should not be considered definitive. The findings generated from these tools could prove to be helpful in facilitating a conversation with students around academic integrity and also serve as a deterrent for the unethical use of GAI tools.
- UNESCO-IESALC ChatGPT and Artificial Intelligence in higher education: Quick start guide
- ChatGPT and All That Follows: Cate Denial Blog post
- The Chronicle of Higher Education: Primer on AI and Teaching
- ChatGPT Advice Academics Can Use Now
- Update Your Course Syllabus for chatGPT
- AI Text Generators and Teaching Writing: Starting Points for Inquiry
- How to deal with ChatGPT as a teacher
- Practical Responses to ChatGPT
- Eight ways to engage with AI writers in higher education
- Course Policies Related to ChatGPT and other AI Tools
- What are We Doing About AI Essays?
- ChatGPT and the rise of AI writers: how should higher education respond?
- Gabe, G. (2022, November 9). Percent Human: A list of tools for detecting lower-quality AI content. GSQi: G-Squared Interactive. Retrieved January 9, 2023 from https://www.gsqi.com/marketing-blog/tools-for-detecting-low-quality-ai-content/#gltr
- Metzer, K., and ChatGPT. (2022, December 9). How CHATGPT could transform higher education . Social Science Space. Retrieved January 9, 2023, from https://www.socialsciencespace.com/2022/12/how-chatgpt-could-transform-higher-education/
- OpenAI. (2023). What is ChatGPT: Commonly asked questions about ChatGPT (Aug 23 version) [Large language model]. https://help.openai.com/en/articles/6783457-what-is-chatgpt
- Trust, T. (2023, January). Chat GPT and Education. Google slides: Online slideshow maker | google workspace. Retrieved January 6, 2023, from https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1Vo9w4ftPx-rizdWyaYoB-pQ3DzK1n325OgDgXsnt0X0/edit#slide=id.p
- Watkins, R. (2022, December 18). Update Your Course Syllabus for chatGPT. Medium.com. Retrieved January 5, 2023 from https://medium.com/@rwatkins_7167/updating-your-course-syllabus-for-chatgpt-965f4b57b003