Providing Feedback Electronically
eFeedback is the use of electronic communications to provide information to students about their work. As with all feedback, it includes the comments, questions, and information on how we are achieving our predetermined goal. eFeedback is a dialogue between the learners and their instructors which provides information on what is good, any misconceptions, what needs to be improved and how to improve the work either in-progress or completed. Good feedback will trigger reflection, learning and improvement.
Methods and Technologies
Electronic feedback (e-feedback) uses technologies to provide information to learners on their learning; the aim is to advance the instructor-learner communication or conversation (Denton, Madden, Roberts, & Rowe, 2008). Examples of technologies and tools include: typed comments; stylus scribe; audio; video; automated or computer-generated comments; and discussion forums.
Historically, feedback has been provided through oral, meta-verbal, or written communications. It is possible to provide effective feedback using various technologies especially with the use of ever growing range of information and communications technologies (ICTs).
Method, Technology, eFeedback, Match
Many technologies lend themselves to a variety of feedback methods. Understanding a technology’s flexibility will help you find more creative ways to use them. Costello & Crane (2015) match Feedback methods and suitable technologies.
|Method||Technology||Type of eFeedback||Example/Comments|
|Automated Tutors||Automated||Computer-generated comments||Quiz feedback within LMS, prompts in an online activity|
|Auto-scored assignments||Automated||Computer-generated comments and associated scores||Popular in quizzes, self-checks and games|
|Emoticons||Word processor; Text message; Digital video; Automated||Icons that express assessor’s emotion towards work being assessed||Word stamps, thumbs up, smiley faces|
|ePortfolio||Word processor; Pen & tablet; Pencast; Digital audio; Digital video||Work samples illustrating learner’s progress; may involve feedback on work in progress||Work samples may include images, written texts, audio or video, certificates|
|Meta-verbal||Text message; Digital audio; Digital video||Non-spoken communication||Gestures, body language, tone, facial expression etc.|
|Oral comments||Digital audio; Digital video; Personal response system (“clickers”)||Spoken words, either synchronous or asynchronous||Group discussions, audio or video|
|Peer feedback||Word processor; Pen & tablet; Pencast; Text message; Digital audio; Digital video; Personal response system (“clickers”)||Critically thought feedback from other students on one’s work, may include suggestions for improvement||Group participation, papers, presentations, portfolios|
|Reflective networks||Word processor; Pen & tablet; Pencast; Digital audio; Digital video; Personal response system (“clickers”)||Learners share their learning with others in order to gain deeper understanding||Peer tutoring, blogging, etc.|
|Self-checks||Automated; Personal response system (“clickers”)||Self scored quizzes that help learners gauge their learning progress||Written comments – texted-based comments on work|
Here is some more information on feedback technologies.
- Costello, J., & Crane, D. (2015). Promoting Effective Feedback in Online Learning. In S. Keengwe (Ed.) Handbook of Research on Active learning and the Flipped Classroom Model in the Digital Age. IGI Global: Hershey, PA.
- Costello, J., & Crane, D. (2009, October). Providing learner-centered feedback using a variety of technologies. Paper presented at EDGE 2009 conference, St. John’s, Newfoundland.
- Denton, P., Madden, J., Roberts, M., & Rowe, P. (2008). Students’ response to traditional and computer-assisted formative feedback: A comparative case study. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(3), 486-500. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2007.00745.x
- Ice, P., Swan, K., Kupczynski, L., & Richardson, J. (2008). The impact of asynchronous audio feedback on teaching and social presence: A survey of current research. In Proceedings of world conference on educational multimedia, hypermedia and telecommunications 2008 (pp. 5646-5649). Chesapeake, VA: AACE. Retrieved from www.learntechlib.org/d/29162