Protecting Intellectual Property

This resource explains intellectual property and what you can do to protect your digital property, such as learning objects or open educational resources. It also explains how to interpret creative commons licenses for  objects you wish to use.

When you share something on the internet you are NOT giving up your digital rights to that object. When adding a Creative Commons (CC) license to an object you allow others to use that object according to the conditions you specify in the license while still maintaining your copyright ownership.

Creative Commons Licenses

The Creative Commons is a set of copyright licenses and tools which provides a simple, standardized way to secure copyright while stipulating to others how the object may be used. It can be as open as allowing anybody to use the object, or a derivative of it, for any reason but cite you as the creator and owner of the object (CC-BY), or as restrictive as allowing others to use your object but only in its complete form, for non-commercial purposes, and also citing you as the creator and owner of the object (CC-BY-NC-ND), with several other licenses in between.

If anybody wants to use your object outside your specified restrictions they legally need to contact you, the copyright owner, for permission.

For more information on Creative Commons, see these resources:

Resource created by Vanessa M. & Jane C.

Learning Object Repositories

A learning object repository is a searchable, digital library of learning objects. Objects found within are free for use (unless otherwise specified). The contents range in subject, type and complexity. The role and function of learning object repositories is explained in this resource. Examples of various repositories are provided.

Linney


Linney is a learning object repository that aims to promote an atmosphere of sharing where learning objects can be searched, reused, repurposed and contributed.

Developed by Memorial University’s Centre for Innovation in Teaching and Learning (CITL), the repository began as a place to house forty years of multimedia objects and assets created by CITL and to make them available to the wider learning community. Find out more about Linney on its About page. Details relating to Linney’s contribution criteria are outlined below.

Contribution criteria

Details relating to Linney’s contribution criteria include that the object:
  1. includes learning design (learning objective, description of how it’s used in instructional event)
  2. is digital (or able to be digitized)
  3. is in a legible format (minimum quality)
  4. meets file size maximum (consider file type and size)
  5. is shareable with other communities and use creative commons by its owner
  6. clearly identifies ownership (able to provide permission to contribute)
  7. is interoperable (playable on multiple platforms and devices)

Other Repositories

There are a variety of repositories available around the world. Some focus on specific media types, topics or audiences. OpenDOAR is a site that lists all open repositories around the world. Below, we list a few repositories that we have used at CITL over the years:

Education Image Gallery – Free images from the Getty collection.

FreeFoto.com – A collection of free photographs for private non-commercial use.

Global Learning Objects Brokered Exchange – A community for all those involved or interested in digital, open and innovative education.

Image*After – large, free photo collection, with images free for any use.

Library of Congress Prints & Photographs online – (not all are copyright-free).

MERLOT II is repository of peer reviewed multimedia educational resources for learning and online teaching.

Metropolitan Museum offers free access to over 400 000 high res images for scholarly use. As long as the image has OASC (Open Access for Scholarly Content) in the info it is free for non-commercial use.

Odyssey – VirginiaTech University Libraries – Odyssey is a learning objects repository created and maintained by the University Libraries at Virginia Tech.

Rijksmuseum  offers free downloads for both commercial and non-commercial use.

Linney –  learning object repository supported by Memorial University that aims to promote an atmosphere of sharing where learning objects can be searched, reused, repurposed and contributed.

Wisc-Online – digital library of objects has been developed primarily by faculty from the Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS).


References

DELT. (2006). Learning Object Repository Report: Draft (April, 2006). Distance Education and Learning Technologies. St. John’s: DELT.

Resource created by Vanessa M. & Jane C.

Finding Free Copyright Material for Your Course

Consider what teaching and learning resources are currently available (published texts, online or print journal articles, Internet sites, photographs, charts, graphics, video/audio clips and animations) and how they will be used. By searching for and selecting resources early in the design process, copyrighted resources can be identified and the process of obtaining permission can begin.

Also, choose the multimedia resources that will need to be developed to enhance learning. The instructional designer will collaborate with you to storyboard the content for these multimedia resources.

 [https://linney.mun.ca/?r=36805&k=a239f9e0ba]

is a video tutorial about how to find material on the internet that is open for reuse.  Memorial University Copyright Officer Nancy Simmons describes how to effectively use search tools through Google and the Creative Commons websites to search for different kinds of material based on their rights, whether they are public domain, or have licenses attached that allow users to reuse or even modify the work.

How to find the sources of an image

Have you already found an image but can’t remember where you got it from, or perhaps forgot to check if it’s open to use at all?  Here is a video tutorial, How to Find the Source of an Image [https://linney.mun.ca/?r=36806], that covers how to search using Google Images in a reverse style search, where you upload the image you have and Google finds all the sites that use that image, or images very similar to it.

How to Find Copyright-Free or CC Licensed Sites for Resources

The Creative Commons search allows you to search Google, Yahoo, Flickr and other sites for material that is licensed under the Creative Commons – which usually means you can use it without charge in a noncommercial context.

Videos

  • Teachers YouTube Channel – created to help teachers leverage video to educate, engage and inspire their students.  https://www.youtube.com/user/teachers
  • TedTalks – a non-profit organization devoted to spreading ideas, usually in the form of short, powerful talks.  www.ted.com
  • YouTube #Education – a YouTube channel featuring some of YouTube’s most popular educational videos.  https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC3yA8nDwraeOfnYfBWun83g
  • Teachers YouTube Channel – created to help teachers leverage video to educate, engage and inspire their students.  https://www.youtube.com/user/teachers
  • Google for Education YouTube Channel – Google for Education is about learning for everyone, anywhere.  https://www.youtube.com/user/eduatgoogle
  • TedEd – TED-Ed is TED’s youth and education initiative. TED-Ed’s mission is to spark and celebrate the ideas of teachers and students around the world.  http://ed.ted.com/
  • Khan Academy – provides a world-class education for anyone, anywhere. www.khanacademy.org
  • Odyssey – VirginiaTech University Libraries – Odyssey is a learning objects repository created and maintained by the University Libraries at Virginia Tech. https://odyssey.lib.vt.edu/
  • Wisc-Online – digital library of objects has been developed primarily by faculty from the Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS). https://www.wisc-online.com/
  • Global Learning Objects Brokered Exchange – A community for all those involved or interested in digital, open and innovative education.  https://www.openeducationeuropa.eu/en
  • Linney-  learning object repository supported by Memorial University that aims to promote an atmosphere of sharing where learning objects can be searched, reused, repurposed and contributed. https://linney.mun.ca

Images

  • Morgue File – probably the best single source of free photos https://www.morguefile.com/
  • Wikimedia Commons – archive of free multimedia content submitted by Wikipedia users https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page 
  • Library of Congress Prints & Photographs online – (not all are copyright-free) http://www.loc.gov/pictures/
  • Education Image Gallery – Free images from the Getty collection https://www.jisc-collections.ac.uk/Catalogue/Overview/Index/30
  • Google Images – using the ‘usage rights’ filter https://images.google.com/
  • Flickr Creative Commons – an index of all Flickr images for which the owner has specified a Creative Commons license (which usually means you can use it) https://www.flickr.com/creativecommons/
  • FreeFoto.com – A collection of free photographs for private non-commercial use.
  • Image*After – large, free photo collection, with images free for any use http://www.imageafter.com/
Resource created by Vanessa M. & Jane C.

How do Learning Objects (LO) Differ from Open Educational Resources (OER)

This resource explains the difference between learning objects and open educational resources.

Learning Objects are a type of Open Educational Resource (OER). They are more restrictive than OERs in that LOs are typically reused as is whereas OERs may be reused, re-purposed or modified.  Both have metadata associated with them such as the digital rights, usually with creative commons, and learning design (objective, or description of learning context).

            LO                                                                  OER

reuse  repurpose                        reuse    redistrubute    revise    remix

Learning Object Repositories

Linney.

linney is a learning object repository that aims to promote an atmosphere of sharing where learning objects can be searched, reused, repurposed and contributed.

CITL embarked on a learning object repository initiative in 2009 with the aim of assembling forty years of educational media into an accessible, searchable repository. The repository, Linney, is reminiscent of an out-building where objects for household work are kept, easily found and freely (re)used as purpose intended, or for a new purpose, by those in the community. This is the essence of Linney; it is an online repository used to house and facilitate the use of learning objects.

More Information
In the colourful history of Newfoundland and Labrador a linney, or lean-to, occupies our cultural landscape as a small shed or room attached to the back of a house and used for the storage and shelter of a range of useful items needed from day to day.

Memorial University hosts the provincial learning object repository, called Linney, which is a place for rich learning objects to be discovered and used to augment a world of projects and curriculum. It’s a place where we keep a wide range of value-added interpretation on the past through a variety of media to use as tools for better education. They are housed in much the same way as useful items are stored in a linney, where members of the household can search, reuse, repurpose, and even contribute learning objects.

The spelling of Linney is derived from the English dialect, which defines a linney as a shed attached to the back of a dwelling. It is, at once, an expression of Newfoundland and Labrador’s rich history and part of our heritage. From this past we look to the future as we harness the possibilities of our learning object repository.

Developed by Memorial University’s Centre for Innovation in Teaching and Learning (CITL), Linney began as a repository to house forty years of multimedia objects and assets created by CITL and to make them available to the wider teaching and learning community. Since then, Linney has evolved into a comprehensive repository that will be available to Newfoundland and Labrador’s K-20 public education system so that expertise and resources can be shared. Digital rights will be acknowledged through the use of Creative Commons in a self-serve model where users access, use and contribute learning objects to the repository.

More Information

Contributions criteria

  1. Includes learning design (learning objective, description of how it’s used in instructional event)
  2. Digital (or able to be digitized)
  3. Legible format (minimum quality)
  4. Meet file size maximum (consider file type and size)
  5. Willing to share with other communities, use creative commons
  6. Ownership clearly identified (able to provide permission to contribute)
  7. Interoperable (playable on multiple platforms and devices)

Other Repositories

OpenDOAR is a site that lists all open repositories around the world.

MERLOT II is repository of peer reviewed multimedia educational resources for learning and online teaching

Metropolitan Museum offers free access to over 400 000 high res images for scholarly use. As long as the image has OASC (Open Access for Scholarly Content) in the info it is free for non-commercial use.

Rijksmuseum  offers free downloads for both commercial and non-commercial use.

Resource created by Vanessa M. & Jane C.

What are Learning Objects?

This resource explains what learning objects are and how they may be used in a learning event. It also explains the purpose of the learning design.

A learning object (LO) is a digital, open educational resource that is created to assist in a learning event. Learning and reusability reside at its core. Each learning object will have a learning design.

Why Use Learning Objects

LOs are often used in teaching of troublesome concepts or to illustrate content and engage learners. Educators use learning objects for a variety of reasons. Learning objects can:

  1. help address a learning objective.
  2. assist learners to solve problems or explore subject areas in different ways.  This allows learners with different learning styles to explore different paths to a solution, enhancing the learning experience for all.
  3. allow educators to give learners access to materials they may otherwise not physically be able to access.
  4. make a lesson more engaging and interesting.

Using learning objects, and sharing with others, give educators and developers an opportunity to collaborate and engage in a community of practice to enhance learning environments and the craft of teaching.

Use In Learning

There are some arguments that learning objects lack substance, because to enable it to be reusable the context in which it was originally used needs to be minimal. This paradox refers to an object’s granularity. The more granular a learning object is, the more reusable it is in other contexts. The more integrated a learning object is, the less reusable it is in other contexts.

[Note to AID: need a visual for this bit in green; choose colours ]

less granular = more context = less reusable      okay

more granular = less context = more reusable     better

A learning object without its educative context is meaningless.  Whereas a learning object that has a clear and detailed learning design will counter this challenge. The metadata connected to an object that can help provide the context of a learning object.

Learning Design

The learning design is the description of the educational context (where and how) in which the object is used. It may take the form of an learning objective. A learning object may have more than one learning design.

Examples

Animated map depicting European exploration in North America during the 16th century

Animated map to show the routes of European explorers from Spain, Portugal, France and Britain and their discoveries during the 16th century.
Learning Design: “To trace the routes of the first European discoveries of North America in the 16th century”.
Object Purpose: to help learners visualize the European routes used to travel to North America during the 16th century.

MLA Style 01: Citing Sources in MLA Style: A Basic Introduction

Librarian explains how to cite sources according to the 7th edition of the MLA Handbook in an engaging and personal manner.
Learning Design: “Demonstrate how to cite sources using the 7th edition of the MLA handbook.”
Object Purpose: this learning object was part of a series of videos explaining how to use MLA style for learners.

Managing Your Business : Managing Inventory

A good example of using a visual story to teach material. It takes the lesson and applies it in an entertaining and “real-life” scenario.
Learning Design 1: “How to organize for inventory control using ABC analysis.”
Learning Design 2: “How to decide how much to order using economic order quantity analysis.”
Learning Design 3: “How to decide when to place an order using the two-bin approach.”
Object Purpose: to give learners an amusing and educational real-life scenario on how to manage inventory for a small business.

Demand Versus Price and Quantity – an interactive tool

The Supply and Demand interactive graph tool is a hands-on tool for students to see the immediate effects on demand when supply goes up or down.
Learning Design: “Students can learn about how the shift in demand of a product or service affects the price and quantity required and vice versa.”
Object Purpose: to help learners visualize the direct impact of the demand of a product versus the price and quantity of the product.


References

  1. DELT. (2006). Learning Object Repository Report: Draft (April, 2006). Distance Education and Learning Technologies. St. John’s: DELT.
  2. Friesen, N. (2009). Open Source Resources in Education: Opportunities and Challenges. Retrieved from http://www.osbr.ca/ojs/index.php/osbr/article/view/911/880.
  3. Littlejohn, A. & Buckingham Shum, S. (2003). (Eds.) Reusing Online Resources. (Special Issue) Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2003 (1). Retrieved from wwwjime.open.ac.uk/2003/1/
  4. McGreal, R. (2008). A Typology of Learning Object Repositories. In Handbook of Information Technologies for Education and Training 2nd Edition. Adelsberger, Pawlowski and Sampson (editors) Springer: Berlin Heidelberg.
  5. Wiley, D. A. (2002). Connecting learning objects to instructional design theory: A definition, a metaphor, and a taxonomy. In D. Wiley (Ed.), The instructional use of learning objects. Bloomington, ID: Agency for Instructional Technology and Association for Communications & Technology. Retrieved from http://www.reusability.org/read/
Resource created by Vanessa M. & Jane C.