The design of something refers to what it is comprised of and how it will look and function. Use the information that you gathered about your audience, course goals and the learning environment to inform your decisions about what to include in the course, how to sequence topics and concepts, and how the course will look and function.
At CITL, we typically take the following steps in course design. You may complete these steps in the specified order or you may complete them in an order that meets your needs.
Step 1: Write Learning Outcomes
Well written learning outcomes will specify what learners will need to know and be able to do as a result of learning. They will also help you select, create, and organize the content, activities, instructional strategies and assessments for the course.
Review the information about course goals and your audience from your analysis and blueprint and write the associated learning outcomes. See the resources on Learning Outcomes for information about learning outcomes and how to write them.
Step 2: Determine Course Structure
Using the learning outcomes and information from the analysis and blueprint, determine how you want to organize and structure various pieces of information, and sequence the content. For example, content should flow from basic and broad concepts to more complex and specific ideas. Content organization can be based on theme, or related concepts, issues and topics. Options include:
- Organize the content by week with learning outcomes for each week
- Subdivide the into units and modules with learning outcomes for each unit or module
Appropriate organization and sequencing will help students feel the connectedness of the content and will provide students with what they need in order to scaffold their learning and meet the more complex learning outcomes.
Overview or guide pages
Your course design can include an overview or guide page for each week, module, or chapter. The content of these pages will act as a map for students as they engage in the materials and it would typically include information such as the following:
- An introduction
- Learning outcomes
- Readings and resources
- Topics for the week or module
- Learning activities
Step 3: Determine Assessment and Feedback
It is important to think about assessment, evaluation and feedback early in the design phase as it may be easier to determine instructional strategies, learning activities, and learning materials and resources after you determine the main assessment for the course. Fink (2013) notes that “if we deal with assessment first, it greatly enhances our ability to identify what learning activities are needed” (p. 70).
Students in on online course will be looking for information about assessments and evaluation on day one. Communicate details using rubrics and an evaluation page, including the evaluation breakdown and descriptions of each evaluation item.
How can learners demonstrate that they have met the learning objectives? Would one of the following assessment types work? Are there other types that would work for this course?
- Quizzes and exams
What do students need in order to complete the activities and assessments? How can technology help or what technology tools will you use? Examples include:
- Assignment drop boxes
- Online quiz tools
- Grade books
How will you provide feedback? Examples include:
- Automated or manually provided feedback via the quiz tool
- Scores and comments provided via rubrics
- Grade books
- Written or audio recorded feedback on assignments
Step 4: Select or Design Instructional Strategies
Now it is time to integrate instructional strategies into the course structure. Instructional strategies are methods and learning activities that are arranged and used strategically in order to maximize students’ ability to learn. An instructional strategy will likely include the following:
- An introduction or preparation phase
- Exposing students to subject matter, concepts and ideas
- Introducing and demonstrating skills
- Opportunities to practice with feedback
- Coaching and providing feedback to ensure students can perform to expectations
- Providing opportunities for students to collaborate
- Assessment of performance
- Assessing learning and performance with feedback incorporated into the assessment activity
- Time for personal reflection on learning and performance
- Incorporating reflection activities
For each learning outcome, and with the course assessments in mind, think about what learners will need to know and be able to do. Then, design and or select the learning resources, learning activities and instructional strategies that will provide learners the best opportunity to meet the learning outcome. Ask yourself:
- What are the readings, videos, notes etc. that learners need in order to learn about the topics related to the learning outcomes?
- Will you edit existing resources or do you need to develop new resources?
- What are the learning activities and experiences that learners can engage with to apply their knowledge, master the related skills, and complete the course assessments. Examples:
- Answer a reflection question for a concept or scenario
- Engage in a debate, case study or role play
- Complete an experiment
- What are the teaching strategies that an instructor can use to help learners engage with the content and understand the concepts. Examples:
- A flipped classroom strategy for a specific concept
- Inquiry-based or problem-based learning
- Reflective practice
- Scaffolding the learning activities to help students complete the final assessments
How can technology help?
- What tools and technologies can help assess learning and provide feedback?
- What are the specific technologies that students will be required to use for learning? For example, a specific database.
- How can technology help in creating learning resources for the course?
- How can technology aid in making accessible and functional online activities?
- How can technology increase student engagement with the course, the instructor and each other?
Step 5: Prepare Your Course Syllabus
Use the syllabus to communicate details about the course and to set expectations for students.
- Course Instructor
- Contact Information
- Course Description
- Course Objectives
- Course Resources
- Course Assessment and Evaluation
- Course Schedule
See course Syllabus resources for detailed information.
Step 6: Describe or Design the Course Style, Theme and Context
You have to decided on the course structure, (organized by week, modules or units) and now you can design style and theme. This can be done after you have a design for one or two weeks, modules, or chapters.
Describe the course style or theme, and design elements that can facilitate the instructional strategies. You may need to do this for the course as a whole and for specific learning outcomes.
Page design considerations include the following:
- Stylized headings provide structure and organization for the content and make it accessible to screen readers and easier to read in general
- Icons convey meaning
- Stylized boxes for reminders and important information
- Stylized tables, charts, and lists make the content easy to read and use
- Colours and images help the learner engage with the materials
- Provision for accessibility features such as image descriptions and transcripts for videos
Follow web accessibility guidelines when designing your course online. This will benefit all learners including those with disabilities.
- Bates, A.W. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.openeducationeuropa.eu/sites/default/files/asset/Teaching_Digital-Age.pdf
- Biggs, J., & Tang, C. (2011). Teaching for Quality Learning at University. Buckingham: Open University Press/McGraw Hill.
- Fink, L.D. (2013). Creating Significant Learning Experiences: An Integrated Approach to Designing College Courses, Revised and Updated. (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Wiley/Jossey-Bass.
- Portland Community College. Accessibility Handbook. Retrieved from http://www.pcc.edu/resources/instructional-support/access/handbook.html
- Ramsden, P. (2003). Learning to Teach in Higher Education. London; New York: Routledge Falmer.