Citation and Reference Guide: generative AI (e.g. ChatGPT)

This resource outlines how to cite and reference content derived from generative artificial intelligence (AI) tools, such as OpenAI’s ChatGPT, Google Bard AI, Microsoft Bing Chat AI,, Copilot, etc. Depending upon the style you use in your course, you may want to reference the specific information below in your syllabus, or link directly to this page.

Memorial University Libraries provide great service to faculty and students to help maintain academic integrity. Instructors are encouraged to reach out to them directly for specific help.

  • Until official guidelines are available, style guides may only offer temporary guidance in citing AI-generated information. 
  • We recommend checking with the official style guide websites for the latest updates.
  • The university library maintains a list of referencing styles. They have recently added instructions on how to reference and cite AI-related content.
  • Furthermore, different publishers are taking different approaches related to the use of generative AI.
  • If you are writing for publication, check the publisher’s information for authors.
  • For course assessments that require citation and referencing, speak or communicate your requirements to students in the course, syllabus, or assignment instructions. For example, let them know if they may consult AI-generating sources for content, how they may use this content, and how to cite it appropriately. Remind students that work should adhere to academic integrity; they need to cite all ideas, words, work, content, and sources that are not their own. They should think critically about the suitability and reliability of sources used in assignments.

Citation and Referencing Recommendations

The most widely-used citation and referencing styles are noted below, including: APA, MLA, Harvard, Chicago, and AAA. No other citation and referencing style guides have identified specific approaches to citing generative AI. Please consult their websites for updates.





American Anthropological Association (AAA)


Resource by Carolyn B. Jane Cos. and Keith P.